Finite Block Length Analysis on Quantum Coherence Distillation and Incoherent Randomness Extraction


We give the first systematic study on the second order asymptotics of the operational task of coherence distillation with and without assistance. In the unassisted setting, we introduce a variant of randomness extraction framework where free incoherent operations are allowed before the incoherent measurement and the randomness extractors. We then show that the maximum number of random bits extractable from a given quantum state is precisely equal to the maximum number of coherent bits distillable from the same state. This relation enables us to derive tight second order expansions of both tasks in the independent and identically distributed setting. Remarkably, the incoherent operation classes that can empower coherence distillation for generic states all admit the same second order expansions, indicating their operational equivalence for coherence distillation in both asymptotic and large block length regimes. We then generalize the above line of research to the assisted setting, arising naturally in bipartite quantum systems where Bob distills coherence from the state at hand, aided by the benevolent Alice possessing the other system. More precisely, we introduce a new assisted incoherent randomness extraction task and establish an exact relation between this task and the assisted coherence distillation. It strengthens the one-shot relation in the unassisted setting and confirms that this cryptographic framework offers a new perspective to the study of quantum coherence distillation. Likewise, this relation yields second order characterizations to the assisted tasks. As by-products, we show the strong converse property of the tasks above from their second order expansions.

IEEE Transactions on Information Theory